India also called the ‘Republic of India’ is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second- most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the South-East. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the West; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the North-East; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the East. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.


India’s 2018 population is estimated at 1.35 Billion (1,353,524,002) based on the most recent UN report and its world’s second most populous country. 1 of every 6 people on the planet live in India, and between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, the country grew by 17.7%, adding 181.5 million people. The country has doubled in size in just 40 years, and is expected to unseat China as the world’s most populated country in the next couple decades. India’s current yearly growth rate is 1.11%. The country as a whole has a population density of 412 people per square kilometre, which ranks 31st in the world. In Mumbai, the population density is 21,000 people per square kilometre (54,000/square mile).

Sex Ratio

The sex ratio of the total population was 1.070 (1,070 males per 1000 females) which is higher than global sex ratio. The global sex ratio in the world was approximately 1.016 males to 1000 females as of 2017.

Total life expectancy

Total life expectancy for both the sex, at the birth is 66.8 years, which is below to the average global life expectancy i.e.) 71 years. Division of life expectancy at the birth is: 65.8 year for Male Population and 68 years for female population.

Literacy rate

According to our estimates 686,446,576 persons or 72.14% of adult population (aged 15 years and above) in India are able to read and write. Accordingly about 265,087,645 adults are illiterate. Literacy rate for adult male population is 80.95% and for adult female its 62.84%.Youth literacy rates are 91.83% and 87.24% for male and female respectively. Overall literacy rate is 89.65%.


United Nations, The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reaffirmed that India will be the fastest growing major economy in 2018, with a growth rate of 7.4 per cent that rises to 7.8 per cent in 2019 with medium-term prospects remaining positive. Medium-term consumer price index inflation is forecast to remain within but closer to the upper bound of the Reserve Bank of India’s inflation-targeting banda of 4% with a plus or minus 2% change.