Cardiac Hospital Planning & Designing

Introduction

A ‘Cardiac Hospital’ is a hospital that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease i.e. cardiovascular disease. The hospital may perform cardiovascular procedures exclusively or also provide emergency care and other services to patients.

Considering the above facts, Hospaccx team participates in ‘Cardiac Hospital Planning and Designing’. This is macroficial study of cardiac hospital planning and designing if you want to get into more detail you can contact [email protected]

Planning & Designing

Cardiology Hospital should have following departments:

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Reception Area

The cardiology department entrance and reception facilities should ideally be:

  • Close to and readily accessible from the main hospital entrance and/or hospital street system
  • Close to and with direct access to the department’s outpatient facilities
  • Close to and with direct access to the department’s non-invasive diagnostic services.

 

A typical cardiac hospital should provide following tertiary level services:

  1. Outpatient consultation services
  2. Inpatient services
  3. Coronary care unit (CCU)
  4. Emergency services
  5. Non-invasive diagnostic services:
  • Nuclear cardiology
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
  • Echocardiography
  1. Invasive radiography services:
  • Coronary angiography
  • Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
  • Electrophysiology
  1. Cardiac surgery:
  • Coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) using a heart bypass pump
  • Coronary artery bypass grafts using an ‘octopus’
  • Open-heart valve replacement surgery
  • Organ transplantation surgery
  • Great vessel vascular work and some elements of pulmonary surgery
  1. Other diagnostic and treatment services:
  • Pacemaker insertion and replacement
  • Endoscopy

Outpatient facilities

OPD should ideally be:

  • Close to and with direct access from the department’s entrance and reception facilities
  • Close to and with direct access to the department’s non-invasive diagnostic services
  • Close to and with convenient access to the hospital’s main X-ray department.

Non-invasive diagnostic services

Facilities provided in support of these services should ideally be:

  • Close to and with direct access from the department’s entrance and reception facilities
  • Close to and with direct access to the department’s outpatient facilities
  • Close to and with direct access to the hospital’s day care facilities
  • Close to the CCU where possible.

Cardiac Emergency

Emergency department plays a key role in determining ACS patients.

Location of ED:

  • The Unit should be located where emergency medical team can respond rapidly and efficiently to emergency calls with minimum travel time. Through traffic to other parts of the healthcare facility should be avoided for efficient access of emergency team and equipment and to maintain patient privacy.
  • Ideally there should be a separate and discrete entry or entries for staff, goods and supplies with swipe card or similar electronic access to authorized personnel. Discrete entry for patients on beds or trolleys may also be considered as this should provide:
  • Easy access from lifts from Emergency Unit and Chest Pain Assessment Unit
  • Ready access to and from Cardiac Catheter Laboratory

Chest Pain Evaluation Area

The location of the CPEA needs to be flexible. The locations most likely to deliver sustainable success are:

  • In or next to the ED
  • Within Short Stay Units (SSU) or Emergency Medical Units (EMU) in Cardiology Units.

Dedicated area for CPEA is used for evaluation of chest pain. Dedicated staff skilled in cardiac care is provided who can initiate treatment under protocol.

Coronary Care Unit (CCU)

A Coronary Care Unit (CCU) is a specially staffed and equipped section of a healthcare facility for the support, monitoring and treatment of highly dependent patients with medical or surgical cardiac conditions which are life threatening or potentially life-threatening.Coronary care bed numbers may vary from 4 to 8.The CCU should be in a quiet location that avoids or minimizes:

  • Disturbing sounds (ambulances, traffic, sirens)
  • Disturbing sights (morgue, cemeteries etc.)
  • Problems associated with prevailing weather conditions (excessive wind, sun exposure etc.)
  • location should enable expansion if additional beds are required in the future

The Coronary Care Unit will consist of the following Functional Areas:

  • Inpatient areas and dedicated clinical support areas
  • Staff offices and amenities

However, the following should be considered with regard to potential for sharing:

  • Clean and dirty utility rooms
  • Central equipment storage
  • Beverage pantry / kitchen
  • Reception / ward clerk
  • Cleaner’s room
  • Disposal room
  • Visitor waiting
  • Public toilets
  • Staff education / training room
  • Staff amenities (shower, toilets, locker room and rest area)

General Cardiology Ward

  • In General Cardiology Ward, care for less acutely ill cardiac patients should be provided.Telemetry monitoring and post intervention care may be provided in this area.
  • Medical Support can be provided to patients having a cardiac history.
  • In response to patient feedback, cardiology team should include a senior pharmacist who is available to give patient education and prepare medications to take hope to speed up the discharge process.
  • Physiotherapist and occupational therapist shall be provided on the wards every day during the week to maintain mobility and independence. Again this is to enhance the discharge process once patients are medically fit to go home.

Cardiac OT

In the Operation Theater Suite, bypass surgeries are performed (doctors call them CABGs, for Coronary Arterial Bypass Grafts), and these theaters are designed adjacent to cardiac catheterization laboratories.

The theaters should be provided with HEPA (High Energy Particulate Arrestors) filters and dedicated air-conditioning conforming to applicable standards of sterility.

The theaters are usually also contiguous to the Surgical ICCU (Intensive Cardiac Care Unit), on the same floor if the particular design circumstances allow it.

Catheter Laboratories i.e. Cath-Lab

In Cathlab, angiographies and angioplasties are performed by cardiologists.

The Cath Labs do not require the same degree of sterility as the Surgical Suite, as the procedures are minimally invasive.

Cardiac Catheter Laboratories should be located in close proximity to holding and recovery bed bays.

The number of laboratories will be determined by the service plan, but laboratories should operate at near-optimum capacity to justify the expense of operation, maintain the skills and teamwork of the operators and staff, and provide maximum patient and operator safety.

The Cardiac Catheterization Suite requires the following functional areas as a minimum:

Treatment Area includes:

  • Catheter Laboratory/s (diagnostic, interventional)
  • Electrophysiology Laboratory (EP) rooms as required
  • Computer equipment rooms (generators, computer modules for imaging equipment)
  • Control room/s (Note: it is not recommended that control rooms are shared
  • Scrub bay/s for catheter laboratories

Support Areas includes:

  • Beverage bay for patient refreshments as required
  • Clean-up and Dirty Utility rooms
  • Clean Utility area that may be collocated with the staff station for ease of staff access
  • Hand washing bays with close access to bed bays
  • Staff station with observation of holding and recovery bed bays
  • Storage for linen, blanket warmer, sterile stock, equipment, consumables, lead aprons, resuscitation trolley and files
  • Set-up area for procedure set-up as required
  • Viewing/ reporting room

Design Considerations for Cath lab

Absolute Minimum for Existing Facilities: 850 net square feet (78.97 net square meters) (29’-0” x 29’-0”), 24’-0” min dimension

New and Existing Facilities: 900 net square feet (83.61 net square meters) (29’-0” x 31’-0”), 24’-0” min dimension.

Control Room: 190 net square feet preferred, 120 NSF minimum

Equipment Room: Minimum 120 net square feet and accessible from the Control Room or the restricted corridor and not accessible from the procedure room

Scrub station should be located adjacent to the entry door of the Laboratory.

Cardiology Day Care

The cardiology day care should have provision to support for day case procedures, which include many investigations and treatments, such as pacemaker work.

Cardiac Rehabilitation

  • Advice and assessment of patients by physio and occupational therapists prior to discharge is an important and integral part of the cardiology service. Therapists may in addition provide hospital based outpatient rehabilitation services to patients with cardiac problems post-intervention and/or provide such services on an outreach basis.
  • Cardiac rehabilitation programs help to achieve better standards of recovery and offer the possibility of an extension to the hospital’s role, into the prevention of further disease.

General Consideration Points

  • Structural design for the building should be done to facilitate future changes in layout and to provide for new demands that these changes may make on building services like electricity, air-conditioning or plumbing.
  • The podium slabs should be designed to support new walls at any point. A grid slab allows for punctures anywhere.
  • Service shafts, column design, elevator provisions and water supply and sewage pipe sizing should allow for substantial, planned expansion.
  • The interior spaces of the hospital should be drenched in natural light and the facility should be wrapped it in abundant greenery, thus enabling the building structure and its interior spaces to become an active partner in the process of healing.

Conclusion

To conclude, above departments should be considered while designing new cardiac hospital because each & individual department plays an important role.

Are you planning to design cardiac hospital? We can help you to design your dream project, below are the healthcare design services that we offer:-

  • Healthcare Architecture Design services
  • MEP Design
  • Landscape Design services
  • Structural  Design services
  • Interior Design services

 

We at Hospaccx Healthcare consultancy, build your dream cardiac unit will all the required norms and requirements. If you want to upgrade your hospital with high end cardiac unit please contact Hospaccx.

It is the superficial and macro level study for more details kindly contact Hospaccx Healthcare business consulting Pvt. ltd on [email protected] or [email protected] or you can visit our website on www.hhbc.in

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